작성일 : 04-04-20 13:34
영국 NRPB 홈페이지에서 발췌한 자료입니다.
조회 : 14,366
다음에 게시한 42개의 질의응답 자료는 영국 NRPB 홈페이지에서 발췌하였습니다.
A natural radioactive gas which decays into other radioactive species, all of which cause human exposure to radiation.
2. 라돈은 어디로부터 방출되나요?
From the minute amounts of uranium present in all earth materials such as rocks, soils, brick and concrete.
3. 라돈의 영향은?
Miners exposed to high radon levels have been found to run an increased risk of lung cancer. Radon in the home also presents a risk, but generally at a lower level.
4. 라돈의 조치준위는?
NRPB recommends that radon levels should be reduced in homes where the average is more than 200 becquerels per cubic metre. This recommendation has been endorsed by the Government.
5. 조치준위에서의 인체위해도?
People living all their lives at the Action Level run the risk of a few percent of developing lung cancer. On average, about one in thirty people exposed for a lifetime at the Action Level would be expected to develop lung cancer.
6. 라돈은 백혈병을 유발하나요?
The main danger from high radon exposure is the increased risk of lung cancer. If there is any risk of leukaemia, it is, by comparison, extremely small.
7. 아이들이 어른에 비해 라돈에 더 위험한가요?
There is no direct evidence of increased risk to children, but in estimating the risk for the population, we make allowance for exposure in childhood.
8. 영국의 남쪽지역만 라돈에 의한 영향을 받습니까?
No. Radon is present in all parts of the UK, but in the most populous areas the levels are quite low. Some of the highest levels have been found in the southwest, but levels well above average have been found in some other parts of England and parts of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. However, even in these areas most homes have low levels.
9. 다른 나라에서도 라돈이 문제인가요?
Yes. All countries are affected to some degree by radon, but the problem is receiving particular attention in Sweden, the other Nordic countries, Germany and the USA.
10.라돈은 시간에 따라 변화하나요?
Yes. Radon levels in homes vary during the day, from one day to the next, and from winter to summer, mainly because of temperature differences between indoors and outdoors. They are generally higher at night and during the winter.
11.왜 라돈농도 측정에 많은 시간을 할애해야 합니까?
Radon levels vary so much that it is not possible to predict with any certainty the long-term values from short-term measurements.
12.라돈농도가 무한히 증가될 수 있나요?
No. Although radon enters homes all the time, some is carried away by the natural ventilation. Even in a home with good draughtproofing and double glazing, the air changes several times a day.
13.화강암 지역에서만 라돈농도가 높은가요?
No. The highest levels have been found in some homes on or near granite in southwest England, but not all granites give high levels. Some other rocks, but not clays, also cause high radon levels.
14.화강암 벽돌에서의 라돈방출이 문제가 될 수 있습니까?
The main source of radon is the ground below the home. Granite walls and fireplaces do not emit much radon.
15.화강암을 이용하는 작업 시 라돈에 의한 위험은 큰가요?
No special precautions are necessary because of radon, just the usual need to avoid too much dust.
16.정원의 암석에서 방출하는 라돈은 위험한 정도인가요?
No. Radon from rocks and soil in the open disperses rapidly in the air.
17.라돈이 많은 지역에서 산출되는 채소류는 인체에 위험한가요?
No. Exposure from the natural radioactivity in food is much less than from radon in the home.
18.물 공급에 의해 라돈이 함께 유입될 수 있나요?
Yes. Most water supplies have low levels of radon, but some smaller supplies may be high. None has been found in the UK with high enough levels to cause as much concern as radon from the ground. NRPB endorses a proposed European guideline suggesting action if radon levels in private water supplies exceed 1000 becquerels per litre.
19.새집을 지을 때 라돈 저감화 조치는 취해지고 있습니까?
Yes. Starting in 1988, guidelines have been introduced in the most affected parts of the country to reduce radon levels in new homes. The guidelines were incorporated in the building regulations in 1991 and these are revised from time to time to take account of the increasing knowledge about radon. You can check with your local authority to see what regulations apply in your area.
20.집을 수리할 계획인데, 라돈을 저감화 할 수 있는 공법이 있습니까?
Yes. Using the advice for new buildings will help to avoid the problem. Particular attention should be paid to the join between the old and new parts. Contact the building control officer for your area for further advice.
21.현재 살고 있는 건축물에서의 라돈농도 저감화 방법은?
If reduction is recommended after long-term radon measurements in your home, you should contact your local authority for information on grants.
22.휴가기간 동안 라돈농도가 높은 방에 있는 경우 위험한가요?
The risk from radon is calculated for a lifetime spent in the same home; the risk from holiday periods will be very small.
23.우리집 라돈농도가 높은지 낮은지는 어떻게 알 수 있나요?
Even in Affected Areas most homes have low levels of radon, and high levels can generally be reduced at fairly moderate cost. Concern about radon should not therefore influence your choice of home. Further advice is given in the booklet Radon: A guide for homebuyers and sellers published by the Government. Once you have moved, you can obtain a measurement for a small fee. The test is confidential, the significance of the result is explained and advice is provided on how to reduce high levels.
24.입주하지 않는 집에서 라돈농도를 측정할 수 있습니까?
Yes, but the radon level may change when the home is occupied. Homes undergoing alteration also cannot be measured accurately; it is best to wait until building work is complete and the home is again occupied in a normal manner.
25.환기회수를 증가시키면 실내 라돈농도는 낮아지나요?
Increasing the ventilation, especially on the ground floor, will in most cases cause a moderate reduction in the radon level. Extractor fans can sometimes aggravate radon problems, if a suitable air inlet is not provided, as they may draw soil gas into the house.
26.이온발생장치, 정전응집장치 및 공기청정기는 라돈 피폭량을 줄일 수 있나요?
None of these devices can reduce doses from radon much. It is better to prevent radon entry rather than to try and reduce the level once it is in the house.
27.작업장에서도 라돈에 피폭될 수 있습니까?
Radon concentrations in workplace buildings can also reach quite high levels. You should discuss the matter with your employer and ask them to contact the Health and Safety Executive or NRPB for advice on the need for measurements.
28.고용주인데, 직원을 위해 라돈농도 측정을 해야 합니까?
The Ionising Radiations Regulations impose a duty on employers to protect workers from exposure to radon. You should contact the local HSE area office or the Environmental Health Department of your local council (whichever you normally deal with for health and safety matters) for advice on whether the regulations are likely to affect your business. NRPB provides a measurement service for places of work and both HSE and NRPB publish leaflets on radon in the workplace.
29.아이들이 학교에서 라돈에 피폭됩니까?
Radon exposures at school are generally lower than at home. Some local authorities in the most Affected Areas are making measurements in schools and taking action where necessary to reduce radon levels. If you are concerned, do discuss the matter with the head teacher.
30.동굴과 광산에서 라돈에 의해 피폭되는 양은 해로운 정도 인가요?
High levels of radon occur in some caves and mines. but a short visit will not cause much exposure.
31.감마선 계측기로 라돈측정이 가능합니까?
Geiger-counters are unable to detect radiation from radon and its decay products at the levels found in homes.
32.방사선을 방출하는 실내공기오염감지기가 라돈농도 측정에 영향을 주지는 않습니까?
No. Smoke detectors contain a small amount of a radioactive material, which does not emit radon and will not affect measurements in your home.
33.체르노빌 사고는 라돈문제에 영향을 주지 않습니까?
No. Radon is entirely natural. We have always received doses of radiation from it and always will. People living in the MUK received much smaller doses from Chernobyl than from radon.
34.실내 라돈문제는 원자력발전의 위험을 혼란스럽게 하기위한 것은 아닌지요?
No. Excessive exposure to any radiation, whether artificial or natural, is a serious matter. Most workers, even in the nuclear industry, receive a larger radiation dose from radon indoors than from their normal work practices. NRPB is required to give impartial advice on all matters of radiation protection and gives serious attention to all sources of radiation exposure. These include both radiation from the nuclear power industry and radiation from radon in the home.
35.실내공간의 높은 라돈농도는 감소시킬 수 있습니까?
Yes. There are several tried and tested methods to reduce radon levels in existing homes. The choice of method depends on the radon level and the way your home is built.
36.집안에서 라돈농도를 감소시키기 위한 비용은?
The cost will vary with the type of work carried out. For simple measures, such as making sure airbricks are clear, it could be as little as a few tens of pounds. The average cost of a radon sump, the most effective way to reduce high levels, is about £500.00–700.00. Of course, if you are able to do the work yourself, the cost will be much less.
A small void under a solid floor connected by a pipe to the outside. A small electric fan in the pipe continually sucks the radon from under the house and expels it harmlessly to the atmosphere. Modern sumps are often constructed from outside the house so there is no disruption inside.
The power of the fan is typically around 75 watts &150; about the same as a light bulb – and runs all the time. The annual cost will be about £50.00. The fan might need to be replaced about every five years and costs about £120.00.
39.라돈농도가 높을 때 무슨 조치를 취해야 할지를 조언 받을 수 있습니까?
Yes. When you receive the result of radon test from NRPB you will be advised whether you need to take steps to reduce the level. If you do, you will be sent a copy of a Government booklet, Radon: A guide to reducing levels in your home which gives details of the various methods. The booklet also contains useful addresses for further information. The Environmental Health Department of your local council can also offer advice.
40.NRPB 라돈농도 측정서비스에 대한 자세한 정보는 어디서 얻을 수 있습니까?
Access the information page on this website.
41.일주일 정도의 짧은 기간동안의 라돈농도 측정결과로부터 얻을 수 있는 정보는?
Such measurements cannot give as accurate an indication of the annual average radon concentration as a three month measurement, but they can be used for screening purposes.
The health risk from radon depends upon the total exposure over time so it is the long-term average radon concentration in a home that is important. Radon levels in houses vary substantially from day to day as they are influenced by weather conditions. The Action Level refers to the annual average concentration in a home. For this reason, it is preferred that radon measurements are carried out with two detectors (in a bedroom and living room) and are conducted over a reasonable period of time, typically three months or more. This averages out short-term fluctuations.
Sometimes, however, the requirement exists to obtain an estimate of the radon concentration within a building in a much shorter period of time. NRPB re-iterates its advice that such short-term measurements, carried out over a fortnight or less, will give less accurate estimates of the long-term average concentration, but may be sufficient for screening purposes.
Short-term measurements will, in many cases, and particularly in lower risk areas, show such a low radon level that it is reasonably certain that the long term radon concentration is below the Action Level. In these circumstances, further testing is not required. However, in other dwellings, and particularly in high risk areas, the screening measurement will give a higher result. Long-term measurements are then required to determine whether or not the radon concentration is above the Action Level.
42.그 밖의 질문이 있는 경우 누구에게 연락을 해야 합니까?
You should get in touch with the Radon Survey.